Angola gained independence from Portugal in 1975, but the civil war between the Popular Movement for the Liberation of Angola ( MPLA ), then in power, and the National Union for the Total Independence of Angola ( UNITA ) continued. A peace accord was signed in 1991, and presidential and parliamentary elections were held in 1992. However, UNITA was dissatisfied with the election results and Angola plunged back into civil war. Although another peace accord was signed in 1994, civil war struck again in 1998. Finally, a ceasefire agreement was reached between the government army and UNITA in 2002, bringing the civil war to an end.
The United Nations established several peacekeeping missions. The first mission was the United Nations Angola Verification Mission (UNAVEM) set up in 1989 to observe the withdrawal of the Cuban army from Angola. Then UNAVEM II was formulated in 1991 to observe the ceasefire agreement. UNAVEM II I was operational in 1995 to ensure the implementation of the ceasefire agreement.


PKO Sept. 1992 International Peace Cooperation Assignment in Angola